Positives: Relatively inexpensive, good efficacy at high rates, less likely to flare spider mites and aphids than acephate, Negatives: Ineffective towards western flower thrips, less effective than acephate or bidrin when applied at lower rates, Positives: Relatively inexpensive, effective towards western flower thrips, Negatives: May flare spider mites and aphids if present, may be weaker against tobacco thrips in certain circumstances, Positives: Effective, less likely to flare spider mites and aphids than acephate, Negatives: Less flexibility with applications early season, Positives: Effective, least likely to flare spider mites and aphids, Negatives: More expensive, requires adjuvant. Plant bugs and stinkbugs are becoming more and more important,” she said. “Ninety percent of our acreage is treated every year for thrips. Thrips cause the most damage to seedling cotton. Over the past few years, control of tobacco thrips with thiamethoxam (Avicta, Cruiser, etc) has been declining and resistance has been confirmed through bioassays. The western flower thrips (WFT), Frankiliniella occidentalis is a recent exotic invader also found in cotton regions. For thrips that feed in buds or unexpanded shoot tips, clip off several plant parts suspected of harboring thrips, … Insecticide choice depends on a number of factors such as cost, impact on secondary pests and spectrum of thrips species present. So whether they're feeding or breeding, we're going to get them.”, One concern is that growers could develop a potential for resistance by over-relying on any one class of chemistry, noted Stewart. Thrips are some of the most damaging insect pests to the leaves of onions world-wide. According to Williams survey, plant bugs infested 93 percent of west Tennessee cotton acreage in 2002, which was second only to thrips, and reduced yields by almost 6,000 bales, fourth behind thrips, budworm/bollworm and stinkbug. (Thripidae – Thysanoptera) Thrips are generally one of the main early season cotton pests. Finally, foliar rescue treatments are utilized when seed treatments have played out. Of these, western flower thrips are the most difficult to control. Recognizing thrips damage in seedling cotton. Foliar treatments should be made when immature thrips are present and/or when large numbers of adults are present and damage is occurring. “Thrips is probably the most important early-season pest that we have,” said Scott Stewart, Extension cotton entomologist at the University of Tennessee's West Tennessee Experiment Station in Jackson. According to Cotton Insect Losses 2002, compiled by Mississippi State University Extension entomologist Mike Williams, thrips infested 97 percent of west Tennessee cotton acreage in 2002 and reduced yield by 15,543 bales, both tops in those categories in west Tennessee. So, it was a surprise to University of Georgia Extension Entomologist Phillip Roberts when he found out some farmers looking for ways to cut input costs were not protecting the crop from thrips. Thrips species do their damage by feeding on the terminal tissues with piercing-sucking mouthparts. Thrips species do their damage by feeding on the terminal tissues with piercing-sucking mouthparts. Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) are prolific and consistent pests of seedling cotton, Gossypium hirstutum L., in the United States (Burris 1989, Cook et al. Because higher than expected thrips damage occurred in cotton fields planted with thiamethoxam-treated seed in recent years (Huseth et al. So, it was a surprise to University of Georgia Extension Entomologist Phillip Roberts when he found out some farmers looking for ways to cut input costs were not protecting the crop from thrips. Photos: Ethan Carter Besides the utilization of strip tillage, twin rows, and the manipulation of the planting window, there are other management tools that can be used to help mitigate thrips damage and TSWV. ; Cotton injury results from thrips infesting and feeding on susceptible seedlings. Damage by these insects causes stunted growth, delayed plant maturity and plant death under heavy infestations. For the past two years, we have looked at thrips on cotton in MO as part of our regional thrips project. The lower risk range for thrips damage includes cotton planted in reduced tillage during mid to late May. Rain, blowing sand, wind, residual herbicide damage, and seedling diseases can worsen thrips damage. Yield losses can vary from none at all to 10 to 20 percent depending on the year.”, With cool weather almost a given at planting in west Tennessee and with so much acreage infested by thrips year after year, growers often go with preventative applications of a systemic in-furrow insecticide such as Cruiser or Gaucho seed treatments or Temik in-furrow, according to Stewart. Female thrips will lay from 45 to 60 eggs. As a result, we have switched almost exclusively to imidacloprid products (Aeris, Gaucho, Acceleron F1) and no longer recommend thiamethoxam (alone) as a seed treatment in cotton. Thrips are one of the most consistent and predictable threats for cotton. The habitats of these pests will largely depend on the weather. According to Cotton Insect Losses 2002, compiled by Mississippi State University Extension entomologist Mike Williams, thrips infested 97 percent of west Tennessee cotton acreage in 2002 and reduced yield by 15,543 bales, both tops in those categories in west Tennessee. Thrips damage cotton by using their rasping-sucking mouthparts to feed on the plant epidermis. Thrips are annual pests of cotton in Louisiana. Thrips damage is most evident during cool, wet periods when small cotton plants grow slowly and damage from blowing sand, diseases, herbicide injury, nematodes, rain, and wind further compound the plant damage. Lines and paragraphs break automatically. Factors like temperature and rainfall affect the ever-changing, high-risk window of thrips each year. Under favorable growing conditions, cotton can sometimes recover completely from early thrips damage. Ruptured cells release plant fluids which are sucked up by the insects. Thrips damage seedling plants most severely, mainly affecting cotton but also soybeans. “That prevents us from having to replant and limits the amount of damage that we take.”. It is a premix of Intrepid and Radiant. Thrips feeding damage on seedling cotton. Female thrips will lay from 45 to 60 eggs. ; Cotton injury results from thrips infesting and feeding on … “Then plant bugs are a primary concern up until about first bloom. Thrips feed on the cotyledons and in the developing terminal of young cot- ton seedlings. In Louisiana, and across most of cotton states, thrips are considered the number one early season insect pest. Pyrethroids will not provide acceptable control thrips in cotton. Cotton Stem Weevil: Pempheres (Pempherulus) affinis. Stewart says the data he's seen indicates that a seed treatment or in-furrow insecticide for thrips control, are pretty comparable. The later planted cotton is at slightly lower risk due to the cotton growing more rapidly with warmer … Early season damage caused by thrips is a annual problem that occurs with varying degrees of severity in Arkansas cotton depending on the size of the thrips population in any given year. Thrips can stunt growth and reduce yield potential. Although a complex of species infests seedling cotton in the region, tobacco thrips are the predominant species requiring management in the crop. Rain, blowing sand, wind, residual herbicide damage, and seedling diseases can worsen thrips damage. Photos: Ethan Carter Besides the utilization of strip tillage, twin rows, and the manipulation of the planting window, there are other management tools that can be used to help mitigate thrips damage and TSWV. Thrips tabaci, T. palmi and Scirtothrips dorsalis. Eusocial colonies of Kladothrips cause and live in galls on Acacia trees. The use of in-furrow applications of imidacloprid and AgLogic 15G are also options that work well for controlling thrips and other early season insects in cotton. Under favorable growing conditions, cotton can sometimes recover completely from early thrips damage. In Louisiana, and across most of cotton states, thrips are considered the number one early season insect pest. These immature thrips can be much more numerous than adults, especially in untreated fields (Figure 8). Thrips damage on cotton leaves — photo courtesy NCSU Cotton Scouting Guide Thrips are the most consistent pest in cotton each year. Even when at-planting insecticides are used, foliar applications of insecticide may be needed in cold, wet years. Thrips damage on cotton leaves — photo courtesy NCSU Cotton Scouting Guide Thrips are the most consistent pest in cotton each year. Some areas have reported treatable numbers, while in other areas seed treatments have held well. Under optimum conditions (about 68 ºF), a single female may lay nearly 100 eggs in her lifetime of about 60 days. web@agcenter.lsu.edu, 106 Martin D. Woodin Hall They may develop high populations in cotton … thrips damage. “People need to be aware that if they are putting on sequential applications in the early season for plant bugs and aphids, they have several different classes of chemistries they can choose from.”, https://www.farmprogress.com/sites/all/themes/penton_subtheme_farmprogress/images/logos/footer.png. Avoid spraying solely based on plant injury since the damage has already occurred. Unlike the Hemiptera (true bugs), the right mandible of thrips is reduced and vestigial – and in some species completely absent. Damage from thrips reduces plant vigor and yield. Ruptured cells release plant fluids which are sucked up by the insects. Stewart noted that a few farmers don't use anything at planting and apply a foliar spray if thrips infest young cotton. These mouthparts allow them to … The Thrips Infestation Predictor for Cotton uses weather data to make predictions of: Thrips dispersal timing,; Cotton growth affecting seedling susceptibility, and; Injury risk that results from thrips dispersal and seedling susceptibility occurring at the same time. Thrips damage is most evident during cool, wet periods when seedling cotton plants are growing slowly. They rasp tender leaves and terminal buds with their sharp mouthparts and feed on the juices. Thrips damage seedling plants most severely, mainly affecting cotton but also soybeans. On the other hand, in the summer and spring, they are usually in trees, flowers, and fruits. Recommended treatments and precau-tions concerning thrips control in cotton are available in the Tennessee Cotton Insect Control Guide (Exten-sion PB 387). Elizabeth Pugh, who farms 4,400 acres of cotton with her father, Eugene Pugh in Halls, Tenn., has seen plant bugs rise in importance, too. When the cotton field was 0.5 km from commercial onion, Allium … Lewis Wilson explains the types of thrips that attack cotton, the types of damage they cause, and whether late season damage is of concern. According to Catchot, thrips damage and CLRDV are often confused because of node stacking and ragged leaves are common with both thrips and early season infections of CLRDV. “One is that weather may not permit you to put on the application. Symptoms of damage. But with the onset of Bt cotton and boll weevil eradication, that's really changed. Are farmers interested in electric equipment? Once cotton has reached the 4th By Suhas Vyavhare and David Kerns. 2016), even though resistance to both thiamethoxam and imidacloprid is reported in F. fusca (Huseth et al. Feeding injury from thrips in cotton (left) and peanut (right). “Once cotton gets past the thrips window, which is the first two to three nodes, we usually don t have a significant problem until we start putting squares on the plant,” Stewart said. Informa PLC's registered office is 5 Howick Place, London SW1P 1WG. If thrips are a suspected cause of plant damage, thrips adults and larvae can be monitored by branch beating or gently shaking foliage or flowers onto a light-colored sheet of paper, beating tray, or small cloth. The LSU AgCenter and the LSU College of Agriculture, 101 Efferson Hall Recommended treatments and precau-tions concerning thrips control in cotton are available in the Tennessee Cotton Insect Control Guide (Exten-sion PB 387). Overtreatment with acephate is an economical option that has demonstrated increased thrips control when applied on top of imidacloprid. Despite their small size, these insects have the potential to cause yield reductions of more than 100 pounds of lint per acre; extremely heavy infestations can even cause death of seedling plants. The left mandible is used briefly to cut into the food plant; saliva is injected and the maxillary stylets, which form a tube, are then inserted and the semi-digested food pumped from ruptured cells. 1 Both species have fairly wide host ranges, feeding on both broadleaf and grass plants, including alfalfa, common bean, grains, grasses, and various weed … It can occur very quickly.”. Heavy infestations of thrips can also cause delays in fruiting. The problem with going with a foliar spray only is two-fold, notes Stewart. “We like both of those products,” Elizabeth said. damage caused by thrips in cotton using hyper spectral radiometer at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore. Cotton planted prior to May 10 and in conventional tillage is considered at high risk for thrips damage. Sunken streaks and patches – leaves and stems Colored spots or patches – usually silver-white Stunted growth – buds (flower and leaf).